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APP Gene

protein-coding   GIFtS: 75

GC21M012656
amyloid beta (A4) precursor protein
(Previous name: Alzheimer disease )
Symbol approved by the HUGO Gene Nomenclature Committee (HGNC) database
(Previous symbol: AD1)
Products    

(According to 1HGNC, 2Entrez Gene,
3UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, 4UniProtKB/TrEMBL, 5OMIM, 6GeneLoc , and/or 7Ensembl, 8miRBase, and/or 9Nature:405,311-319 and CroW21)
About This Section

Aliases & Descriptions
amyloid beta (A4) precursor protein1 2     beta-amyloid peptide2
AD12 3 5     preA42
CVAP2 3 5     ABETA2
Alzheimer disease amyloid protein2 3     CTFgamma2
Cerebral vascular amyloid peptide2 3     OTTHUMP000000960962
Protease nexin-II2 3     PN22
PN-II2 3     amyloid beta A4 protein2
APPI2 3     peptidase nexin-II2
ABPP2 3     A43
AAA2 5     PreA43
Alzheimer disease1     human mRNA for amyloid A4 precursor of Alzheimer's disease9

External Ids:    HGNC: 6201   Entrez Gene: 3512   Ensembl: ENSG000001421927   UniProtKB: P050673   

Export aliases for APP gene to outside databases

Previous GC identifers: GC21M023831 GC21M026174 GC21M027252


(According to Entrez Gene, Tocris Bioscience, Wikipedia's Gene Wiki,
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, and/or UniProtKB/TrEMBL)
About This Section

Entrez Gene summary for APP:
This gene encodes a cell surface receptor and transmembrane precursor protein that is cleaved by secretases to form a
number of peptides. Some of these peptides are secreted and can bind to the acetyltransferase complex APBB1/TIP60 to
promote transcriptional activation, while others form the protein basis of the amyloid plaques found in the brains of
patients with Alzheimer disease. Mutations in this gene have been implicated in autosomal dominant Alzheimer disease
and cerebroarterial amyloidosis (cerebral amyloid angiopathy). Multiple transcript variants encoding several different
isoforms have been found for this gene. (provided by RefSeq)

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: A4_HUMAN, P05067
Function: Functions as a cell surface receptor and performs physiological functions on the surface of neurons relevant
to neurite growth, neuronal adhesion and axonogenesis. Involved in cell mobility and transcription regulation through
protein-protein interactions. Can promote transcription activation through binding to APBB1-KAT5 and inhibits Notch
signaling through interaction with Numb. Couples to apoptosis-inducing pathways such as those mediated by G(O) and
JIP. Inhibits G(o) alpha ATPase activity (By similarity). Acts as a kinesin I membrane receptor, mediating the axonal
transport of beta-secretase and presenilin 1. Involved in copper homeostasis/oxidative stress through copper ion
reduction. In vitro, copper-metallated APP induces neuronal death directly or is potentiated through Cu(2+)-mediated
low-density lipoprotein oxidation. Can regulate neurite outgrowth through binding to components of the extracellular
matrix such as heparin and collagen I and IV. The splice isoforms that contain the BPTI domain possess protease
inhibitor activity. Induces a AGER-dependent pathway that involves activation of p38 MAPK, resulting in
internalization of amyloid-beta peptide and leading to mitochondrial dysfunction in cultured cortical neurons
Function: Beta-amyloid peptides are lipophilic metal chelators with metal-reducing activity. Bind transient metals such
as copper, zinc and iron. In vitro, can reduce Cu(2+) and Fe(3+) to Cu(+) and Fe(2+), respectively. Beta-amyloid 42 is
a more effective reductant than beta-amyloid 40. Beta-amyloid peptides bind to lipoproteins and apolipoproteins E and
J in the CSF and to HDL particles in plasma, inhibiting metal-catalyzed oxidation of lipoproteins. Beta-APP42 may
activate mononuclear phagocytes in the brain and elicit inflammatory responses. Promotes both tau aggregation and TPK
II-mediated phosphorylation. Interaction with overexpressed HADH2 leads to oxidative stress and neurotoxicity
Function: Appicans elicit adhesion of neural cells to the extracellular matrix and may regulate neurite outgrowth in
the brain (By similarity)
Function: The gamma-CTF peptides as well as the caspase-cleaved peptides, including C31, are potent enhancers of
neuronal apoptosis
Function: N-APP binds TNFRSF21 triggering caspase activation and degeneration of both neuronal cell bodies (via
caspase-3) and axons (via caspase-6)

summary for APP:
Amyloid beta (Abeta) peptides are the major component of amyloid plaques found in the brains of Alzheimer's
patients. Abeta is formed from the progressive cleavage of amyloid precursor protein (APP) by beta- and
gamma-secretase. Two Abeta peptides are formed from APP degradation; Abeta40 and Abeta42. Abeta40 is the
most abundant form, but Abeta42 is more fibrillogenic, thus is associated with disease states. Mutations in
APP have been linked to early onset Alzheimer's disease, as proteolytic cleavage of the altered protein
increases the levels of Abeta42 relative to Abeta40. Furthermore, Abeta proteins have been associated with
other diseases including Lewy body dementia, inclusion body myositis and cerebral amyloid angiopathy.

Gene Wiki entry for APP (Amyloid precursor protein)

(According to GeneLoc and/or HGNC, and/or
Entrez Gene (NCBI build 37),
and/or miRBase,
Genomic Views according to UCSC (hg19) and Ensembl (release 60), Regulatory elements and Epigenetics data according to Qiagen and/or SABiosciences, Whole Chromsome Sequence According to Nature (Cited Here with Permission):405,311-319 and CroW21)
About This Section

Regulatory elements:
   SABiosciences Regulatory transcription factor binding sites in the APP gene promoter:
         deltaCREB   CREB   C/EBPbeta   TBP   c-Myc   Max1   TFIID   NF-1   p53   ATF   
         Other transcription factors

   Search SABiosciences Chromatin IP Primers for APP

Epigenetics:
QIAGEN PyroMark CpG Assay predesigned Pyrosequencing DNA Methylation assays for APP 


Genomic Location:
Genomic View: UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Entrez Gene cytogenetic band: 21q21.2|21q21.3   Ensembl cytogenetic band:  21q21.3   HGNC cytogenetic band: 21q21.2
Nature(405: 311-319) cytogenetic band:   21q21.3
APP Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
APP gene location
GeneLoc gene densities for chromosome 21         GeneLoc Exon Structure

(about GC identifiers)
GC21M012656:   GeneLoc Nature:405,311-319
Start:
12,656,350 bp from pter       12,830,594 bp from centromere
End:
12,947,658 bp from pter 13,120,880 bp from centromere
Size:
291,309 bases 290,287 bases
Orientation:
minus strand minus strand

1 alternative location:
Chr21- 27,252,861-27,543,446     
RefSeq DNA sequence:
NC_000021.8  NT_011512.11  

Whole chromosome sequencing:
cDNA sequence: Y00264
genomic clones: pT364 to Q22F1


(According to 1UniProtKB, neXtProt, and/or Ensembl, Phosphorylation sites according to 2Phosphosite, RefSeq according to NCBI, PDB rendering according to OCA and/or Proteopedia, Recombinant Proteins from Millipore, Sigma-Aldrich, R&D Systems, GenScript, Enzo Life Sciences, OriGene, Novus Biologicals, Sino Biological, and/or ProSpec,
Biochemical Assays by Millipore, Sigma-Aldrich, R&D Systems, OriGene, GenScript, Cell Signaling Technology, Enzo Life Sciences, and/or Uscn, Ontologies according to Gene Ontology Consortium 01 Dec 2010 and Entrez Gene, Antibodies by Millipore, Sigma-Aldrich, R&D Systems, GenScript, Cell Signaling Technology, OriGene, Novus Biologicals, and/or Epitomics)
About This Section

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: A4_HUMAN, P05067 (See protein sequence)
Recommended Name: Amyloid beta A4 protein precursor  
Size: 770 amino acids; 86943 Da
Subunit: Binds, via its C-terminus, to the PID domain of several cytoplasmic proteins, including APBB family members,
the APBA family, MAPK8IP1, SHC1 and, NUMB and DAB1 (By similarity). Binding to DAB1 inhibits its serine
phosphorylation (By similarity). Also interacts with GPCR-like protein BPP, FPRL1, APPBP1, IB1, KNS2 (via its TPR
domains) (By similarity), APPBP2 (via BaSS) and DDB1. In vitro, it binds MAPT via the MT-binding domains (By
similarity). Associates with microtubules in the presence of ATP and in a kinesin-dependent manner (By similarity).
Interacts, through a C-terminal domain, with GNAO1. Amyloid beta-42 binds CHRNA7 in hippocampal neurons. Beta-amyloid
associates with HADH2. Soluble APP binds, via its N-terminal head, to FBLN1. Interacts with CPEB1 and AGER (By
similarity). Interacts with ANKS1B and TNFRSF21. Interacts with ITM2B. Interacts with ITM2C. Interacts with IDE. Can
form homodimers; this is promoted by heparin binding
Subcellular location: Membrane; Single-pass type I membrane protein. Membrane, clathrin-coated pit. Note=Cell surface
protein that rapidly becomes internalized via clathrin-coated pits. During maturation, the immature APP
(N-glycosylated in the endoplasmic reticulum) moves to the Golgi complex where complete maturation occurs
(O-glycosylated and sulfated). After alpha-secretase cleavage, soluble APP is released into the extracellular space
and the C-terminal is internalized to endosomes and lysosomes. Some APP accumulates in secretory transport vesicles
leaving the late Golgi compartment and returns to the cell surface. Gamma-CTF(59) peptide is located to both the
cytoplasm and nuclei of neurons. It can be translocated to the nucleus through association with APBB1 (Fe65).
Beta-APP42 associates with FRPL1 at the cell surface and the complex is then rapidly internalized. APP sorts to the
basolateral surface in epithelial cells. During neuronal differentiation, the Thr-743 phosphorylated form is located
mainly in growth cones, moderately in neurites and sparingly in the cell body. Casein kinase phosphorylation can occur
either at the cell surface or within a post-Golgi compartment
Mass spectrometry: Mass=6461.6; Method=MALDI; Range=712-767; Source=PubMed:12214090;
Mass spectrometry: Mass=6451.6; Method=MALDI; Range=714-770; Source=PubMed:12214090;
Mass spectrometry: Mass=6436.8; Method=MALDI; Range=715-769; Source=PubMed:12214090;
Mass spectrometry: Mass=5752.5; Method=MALDI; Range=719-767; Source=PubMed:12214090;
Miscellaneous: Chelation of metal ions, notably copper, iron and zinc, can induce histidine-bridging between
beta-amyloid molecules resulting in beta-amyloid-metal aggregates. The affinity for copper is much higher than for
other transient metals and is increased under acidic conditions. Extracellular zinc-binding increases binding of
heparin to APP and inhibits collagen-binding
Sequence caution: Sequence=AAA58727.1; Type=Miscellaneous discrepancy; Note=Contamination by an Alu repeat;
PDB structures from and Proteopedia :
1AAP (3D)    1AMB (3D)    1AMC (3D)    1AML (3D)    1BA4 (3D)    1BA6 (3D)    1BJB (3D)    1BJC (3D)    
1BRC (3D)    1CA0 (3D)    1HZ3 (3D)    1IYT (3D)    1MWP (3D)    1OWT (3D)    1QCM (3D)    1QWP (3D)    
1QXC (3D)    1QYT (3D)    1RW6 (3D)    1TAW (3D)    1TKN (3D)    1UO7 (3D)    1UO8 (3D)    1UOA (3D)    
1UOI (3D)    1X11 (3D)    1Z0Q (3D)    1ZE7 (3D)    1ZE9 (3D)    1ZJD (3D)    2BEG (3D)    2BOM (3D)    
2BP4 (3D)    2FJZ (3D)    2FK1 (3D)    2FK2 (3D)    2FK3 (3D)    2FKL (3D)    2FMA (3D)    2G47 (3D)    
2IPU (3D)    2OTK (3D)    2R0W (3D)    2WK3 (3D)    3DXC (3D)    3DXD (3D)    3DXE (3D)    3GCI (3D)    
3IFL (3D)    3IFN (3D)    3IFO (3D)    3IFP (3D)    3JTI (3D)    3KTM (3D)    3L33 (3D)    3L81 (3D)    
Secondary accessions: B2R5V1 P09000 P78438 Q13764 Q13778 Q13793 Q16011 Q16014 Q16019 Q16020 Q6GSC0
Q8WZ99 Q9BT38 Q9UC33 Q9UCA9 Q9UCB6 Q9UCC8 Q9UCD1 Q9UQ58
Alternative splicing: 10 isoforms:  P05067-1   P05067-2   P05067-3   P05067-4   P05067-5   P05067-6   P05067-7   P05067-8   
P05067-9   P05067-10   (Additional isoforms seem to exist. Experimental confirmation may be lacking for some isoforms)

Explore the universe of human proteins at neXtProt for APP: NX_P05067 

Post-translational modifications:

  • Proteolytically processed under normal cellular conditions. Cleavage either by alpha-secretase, beta-secretase or
  • theta-secretase leads to generation and extracellular release of soluble APP peptides, S-APP-alpha and S-APP-beta, and
    the retention of corresponding membrane-anchored C-terminal fragments, C80, C83 and C99. Subsequent processing of C80
    and C83 by gamma-secretase yields P3 peptides. This is the major secretory pathway and is non-amyloidogenic.
    Alternatively, presenilin/nicastrin-mediated gamma-secretase processing of C99 releases the amyloid beta proteins,
    amyloid-beta 40 (Abeta40) and amyloid-beta 42 (Abeta42), major components of amyloid plaques, and the cytotoxic
    C-terminal fragments, gamma-CTF(50), gamma-CTF(57) and gamma-CTF(59)1
  • Proteolytically cleaved by caspases during neuronal apoptosis. Cleavage at Asp-739 by either caspase-6, -8 or -9
  • results in the production of the neurotoxic C31 peptide and the increased production of beta-amyloid peptides1
  • N- and O-glycosylated. O-linkage of chondroitin sulfate to the L-APP isoforms produces the APP proteoglycan core
  • proteins, the appicans. The chondroitin sulfate chain of appicans contains 4-O-sulfated galactose in the linkage
    region and chondroitin sulfate E in the repeated disaccharide region (By similarity)1
  • Phosphorylation in the C-terminal on tyrosine, threonine and serine residues is neuron-specific. Phosphorylation can
  • affect APP processing, neuronal differentiation and interaction with other proteins. Phosphorylated on Thr-743 in
    neuronal cells by Cdc5 kinase and Mapk10, in dividing cells by Cdc2 kinase in a cell-cycle dependent manner with
    maximal levels at the G2/M phase and, in vitro, by GSK-3-beta. The Thr-743 phosphorylated form causes a conformational
    change which reduces binding of Fe65 family members. Phosphorylation on Tyr-757 is required for SHC binding.
    Phosphorylated in the extracellular domain by casein kinases on both soluble and membrane-bound APP. This
    phosphorylation is inhibited by heparin1
  • Extracellular binding and reduction of copper, results in a corresponding oxidation of Cys-144 and Cys-158, and the
  • formation of a disulfide bond. In vitro, the APP-Cu(+) complex in the presence of hydrogen peroxide results in an
    increased production of beta-amyloid-containing peptides1
  • Trophic-factor deprivation triggers the cleavage of surface APP by beta-secretase to release sAPP-beta which is further
  • cleaved to release an N-terminal fragment of APP (N-APP)1
  • Beta-amyloid peptides are degraded by IDE1
  • View phosphorylation sites using PhosphoSite2


  • REFSEQ proteins (5 alternative transcripts): 
    NP_000475.1  NP_001129601.1  NP_001129602.1  NP_958816.1  NP_958817.1  


    ENSEMBL proteins: 
    ENSP00000388538 ENSP00000397795 ENSP00000346129 ENSP00000351796 ENSP00000406539 ENSP00000398879 
    ENSP00000352760 ENSP00000350578 ENSP00000345463 ENSP00000396923 ENSP00000284981 ENSP00000387483 
    ENSP00000413101 


    Human Recombinant Proteins 
    Millipore Purified and/or Recombinant APP Protein
    Sigma-Aldrich Proteins for APP
    R&D Systems Recombinant & Natural Proteins for APP (APP+1, APP)
    Browse recombinant and purified proteins available from Enzo Life Sciences
    OriGene Purified Protein: APP
    OriGene Protein Over-expression Lysate (see all 3): APP
    GenScript Purified and Recombinant Proteins for APP 
    Novus Biologicals Proteins for APP
    Novus Biologicals Lysate for APP
    Sino Biological Recombinant Protein for APP
    Browse ProSpec Recombinant Proteins

    5/24 Gene Ontology (GO) cellular component terms (GO ID links to tree view) (see all 24):

    GO IDQualified GO termEvidencePubMed IDs
    GO:0005576 extracellular region TAS--
    GO:0005624 membrane fraction ----
    GO:0005737 cytoplasm ISS--
    GO:0005794 Golgi apparatus ISS--
    GO:0005886 plasma membrane IDA12805363
    About this table

    APP for ontologies           About GeneDecksing



    Antibodies for APP: 
    Millipore Mono- and Polyclonal Antibodies for the study of APP
    Sigma-Aldrich Antibody Arrays and Antibodies for APP
    R&D Systems Antibodies for APP (APP 695+1, APP+1, APP)
    Cell Signaling Technology (CST) Antibodies for APP 
    OriGene Antibodies (see all 19): APP
    GenScript Superior Antibodies for APP 
    Novus Biologicals Antibodies for APP
    Epitomics antibodies for APP

    Assays for APP: 
    Millipore Kits and Assays for the Analysis of APP
    Browse ELISAs at Sigma-Aldrich
    OriGene Custom Immunoassay Development 
    Browse OriGene Fluorogenic Cell Assay Kits 
    R&D Systems ELISAs for APP
    GenScript Custom Assay Services for APP 
    Browse Enzo Life Sciences for kits & assays
    Uscn ELISAs and CLIAs for APP 


    (According to InterPro, ProtoNet, UniProtKB, and/or BLOCKS, Sets of similar genes according to GeneDecks)
    About This Section

    APP for domains           About GeneDecksing

    5/10 InterPro domains/families (see all 10):
     IPR002223 Prot_inh_Kunz-m
     IPR008154 Amyloid_glyco_extra
     IPR020901 Prtase_inh_Kunz-CS
     IPR011178 Amyloid_glyco_Cu-bd
     IPR013803 Amyloid_glyco_Abeta

    Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry P05067

    ProtoNet protein and cluster: P05067

    2 Blocks protein families:
    IPB002223 Pancreatic trypsin inhibitor (Kunitz)
    IPB008155 Amyloidogenic glycoprotein (Amyloid A4)


    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: A4_HUMAN, P05067
    Domain: The basolateral sorting signal (BaSS) is required for sorting of membrane proteins to the basolateral surface
    of epithelial cells
    Domain: The NPXY sequence motif found in many tyrosine-phosphorylated proteins is required for the specific binding of
    the PID domain. However, additional amino acids either N- or C-terminal to the NPXY motif are often required for
    complete interaction. The PID domain-containing proteins which bind APP require the YENPTY motif for full interaction.
    These interactions are independent of phosphorylation on the terminal tyrosine residue. The NPXY site is also involved
    in clathrin-mediated endocytosis
    Similarity: Belongs to the APP family
    Similarity: Contains 1 BPTI/Kunitz inhibitor domain


    (According to UniProtKB, IUBMB,and/or Genatlas, Animal models from MGI Dec 24 2010,
    shRNA from OriGene, Sigma-Aldrich, RNAi from Millipore, siRNAs from Sigma-Aldrich, OriGene, Qiagen, Super-pooled esiRNAs from Sigma-Aldrich, microRNA from Sigma-Aldrich, Qiagen, SABiosciences, Clones from Millipore, Sigma-Aldrich, OriGene, GenScript, Sino Biological, Cell Lines from GenScript, Ontologies according to Gene Ontology Consortium 01 Dec 2010 via Entrez Gene.)
    About This Section

    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: A4_HUMAN, P05067
    Function: Functions as a cell surface receptor and performs physiological functions on the surface of neurons relevant
    to neurite growth, neuronal adhesion and axonogenesis. Involved in cell mobility and transcription regulation through
    protein-protein interactions. Can promote transcription activation through binding to APBB1-KAT5 and inhibits Notch
    signaling through interaction with Numb. Couples to apoptosis-inducing pathways such as those mediated by G(O) and
    JIP. Inhibits G(o) alpha ATPase activity (By similarity). Acts as a kinesin I membrane receptor, mediating the axonal
    transport of beta-secretase and presenilin 1. Involved in copper homeostasis/oxidative stress through copper ion
    reduction. In vitro, copper-metallated APP induces neuronal death directly or is potentiated through Cu(2+)-mediated
    low-density lipoprotein oxidation. Can regulate neurite outgrowth through binding to components of the extracellular
    matrix such as heparin and collagen I and IV. The splice isoforms that contain the BPTI domain possess protease
    inhibitor activity. Induces a AGER-dependent pathway that involves activation of p38 MAPK, resulting in
    internalization of amyloid-beta peptide and leading to mitochondrial dysfunction in cultured cortical neurons
    Function: Beta-amyloid peptides are lipophilic metal chelators with metal-reducing activity. Bind transient metals such
    as copper, zinc and iron. In vitro, can reduce Cu(2+) and Fe(3+) to Cu(+) and Fe(2+), respectively. Beta-amyloid 42 is
    a more effective reductant than beta-amyloid 40. Beta-amyloid peptides bind to lipoproteins and apolipoproteins E and
    J in the CSF and to HDL particles in plasma, inhibiting metal-catalyzed oxidation of lipoproteins. Beta-APP42 may
    activate mononuclear phagocytes in the brain and elicit inflammatory responses. Promotes both tau aggregation and TPK
    II-mediated phosphorylation. Interaction with overexpressed HADH2 leads to oxidative stress and neurotoxicity
    Function: Appicans elicit adhesion of neural cells to the extracellular matrix and may regulate neurite outgrowth in
    the brain (By similarity)
    Function: The gamma-CTF peptides as well as the caspase-cleaved peptides, including C31, are potent enhancers of
    neuronal apoptosis
    Function: N-APP binds TNFRSF21 triggering caspase activation and degeneration of both neuronal cell bodies (via
    caspase-3) and axons (via caspase-6)
    Induction: Increased levels during neuronal differentiation

    Inhib.
    RNA:
        
    Browse for Gene Knock-down Tools from Millipore
    Browse Nano Scale siRNA at Sigma-Aldrich
    Sigma-Aldrich siRNA Panels and esiRNA and siRNA for APP
    Sigma-Aldrich shRNA Panels and shRNA for APP
    OriGene 29mer shRNA kits in GFP-retroviral vector (see all 7): APP
    OriGene shRNA RFP (see all 7): APP
    OriGene basic RS shRNA (see all 7): APP
    OriGene siRNA (see all 7): APP
    QIAGEN FlexiTube/FlexiPlate siRNA for gene silencing of APP 
    miRNA:Sigma-Aldrich microRNA Mimics for APP
    Sigma-Aldrich microRNA target validation systems for APP 
    QIAGEN Custom miScript Target Protector blocks miRNA-binding site of APP 
    6 SABiosciences Assays for microRNAs that regulate APP:
    hsa-miR-153 hsa-miR-323-3p hsa-miR-300 hsa-miR-381 hsa-miR-1245 hsa-miR-101

    Gene
    Editing:
    Browse CompoZr Knockout ZFN at Sigma-Aldrich 

    Clones:Browse Clones for the Expression of Recombinant Proteins Available from Millipore
    Browse iPSC Reprogramming Factors at Sigma-Aldrich
    OriGene GFP tagged cDNA clones in CMV expression vector (see all 5): APP
    OriGene Myc/DDK tagged cDNA clones in CMV expression vector (see all 7): APP
    OriGene untagged cDNA clones in CMV expression vector (see all 3): APP
    OriGene 3'-UTR clone (see all 5): APP 
    Browse MicroRNA Expression Plasmids 
    GenScript Custom cDNA clone Services for APP 
    Browse Sino Biological Human cDNA Clones

    Cell
    Lines:
      
    GenScript Custom overexpressing Cell Line Services for APP 

    Genatlas biochemistry entry for APP:
    amyloid beta (A4) precursor protein (APP 695) undergoing proteolytic cleavages by either alpha,beta or gamma secretases
    in or near the transmembrane domain,to yield several secreted derivatives,including soluble APP,4kDa,beta peptide (A
    beta) and a related,3 kDa,protein,expressed ubiquitously by neuronal and non neuronal cells and sorted to axons in
    neurons and the basolateral surface in epithelial cells (see PN2)

    5/12 Gene Ontology (GO) molecular function terms (GO ID links to tree view) (see all 12):

    GO IDQualified GO termEvidencePubMed IDs
    GO:0003677 DNA binding ISS--
    GO:0004867 serine-type endopeptidase inhibitor activity IDA10652580
    GO:0005102 receptor binding IPI19849849
    GO:0005488 binding ----
    GO:0005515 protein binding IPI18387811
    About this table

    APP for ontologies           About GeneDecksing

    Animal Models: 10 MGI mutant phenotypes (inferred from 18 alleles(MGI details for App):

    behavior/neurologicalcellulargrowth/sizelethality-postnatallife span-post-weaning/aging
    nervous systemnormalotherreproductive systemskin/coat/nails

    APP for phenotypes           About GeneDecksing


    (Pathways according to Millipore, Cell Signaling Technology, Sigma-Aldrich, KEGG and/or UniProtKB, Sets of similar genes according to GeneDecks, PCR Arrays from SABiosciences, Proteins Network according to SABiosciences, Sigma-Aldrich, Interactions according to 1UniProtKB, 2MINT, and/or 3STRING, with links to IntAct and Ensembl, Ontologies according to Gene Ontology Consortium 01 Dec 2010 via Entrez Gene).
    About This Section


    APP for pathways           About GeneDecksing

    5 Sigma-Aldrich "Your Favorite Gene" (powered by Ingenuity) Pathways for  APP
        Reelin Signaling in Neurons
    Neuroprotective Role of THOP1 in Alzheimer's Disease
    Amyloid Processing
    Docosahexaenoic Acid (DHA) Signaling
    Mitochondrial Dysfunction

    1 Kegg Pathway  (Kegg details for APP):
        hsa05010 Alzheimer's disease

        SABiosciences Pathway-Focused PCR Arrays including APP: PAHS-057A PAHS-084A 

        Sigma-Aldrich "Your Favorite Gene" (powered by Ingenuity) Molecular Interaction Network for APP
        SABiosciences Gene Network CentralTM Interacting Genes and Proteins Network for APP

    5/65 Interacting proteins for APP (ENSP000002849813 P050671, 2) via UniProtKB, MINT, and/or STRING (see all 65)
    InteractantInteraction Details
    GeneCardExternal ID(s)
    MAPK8IP1Q9UQF21, 2STRING: ENSP00000241014 EBI-77613,EBI-78404 MINT-14545 MINT-14546 MINT-14544 MINT-14547
    SHC1P293531, 2STRING: ENSP00000357432 EBI-77613,EBI-78835 MINT-49660
    APPP050671, 2EBI-77613,EBI-77613 MINT-8076751 MINT-8076777 MINT-8076899 MINT-8076832 MINT-8076792 MINT-8076881 MINT-8076937 MINT-8076848 MINT-8076764
    APBA1Q024101STRING: ENSP00000265381 EBI-77613,EBI-368690
    APBB1O002131STRING: ENSP00000299402 EBI-77613,EBI-81694
    About this table

    5/37 Gene Ontology (GO) biological process terms (GO ID links to tree view) (see all 37):

    GO IDQualified GO termEvidencePubMed IDs
    GO:0000085 G2 phase of mitotic cell cycle ISS--
    GO:0001967 suckling behavior IEA--
    GO:0002576 platelet degranulation TAS--
    GO:0006378 mRNA polyadenylation ISS--
    GO:0006417 regulation of translation ISS--
    About this table

    APP for ontologies           About GeneDecksing



    (Chemical Compounds according to UniProtKB, Enzo Life Sciences, Sigma-Aldrich, Tocris Bioscience, and/or Novoseek and Drugs according to Enzo Life Sciences and/or PharmGKB)
    About This Section

    APP for compounds           About GeneDecksing

    Sigma-Aldrich Small Molecules for APP:
    Small Molecule - Antagonist Small Molecule - Substrate
    Enzo Life Sciences drugs & compounds for APP

    Compounds for APP available from Tocris Bioscience
    CompoundAction CAS number
    Amyloid beta-peptide (1-40) (rat)Amyloid beta-protein fragment[144409-98-3]
    Amyloid beta-peptide (1-42) (rat)Predominant amyloid beta-protein fragment[166090-74-0]
    Amyloid beta-Peptide (1-40) (human)Amyloid beta-protein fragment[131438-79-4]
    Amyloid beta-Peptide (1-42) (human)Predominant amyloid beta-protein fragment[107761-42-2]
    DAPTgamma-secretase inhibitor[208255-80-5]
    About this table


    10/120 Novoseek chemical compound relationships for APP gene (see all 120)
    Compound   -log (P-Val)   Hits   PubMed IDs for Articles with Shared Sentences (# sentences)
    thioflavin t 82.5 14 10686395 (1), 15615711 (1), 18202749 (1), 19399778 (1) (see all 14)
    happ 76.6 22 7499323 (2), 16027115 (1), 19369541 (1), 7882025 (1) (see all 14)
    clioquinol 69.6 5 12198135 (1), 15681799 (1), 16648635 (1), 16025421 (1)
    aspartate(1-) 68.5 1 17352478 (1)
    thioflavin 67.2 3 8292358 (1), 7845465 (1)
    tv-3279 66.8 6 12206996 (2), 12853332 (2), 17197368 (1), 16935943 (1)
    phenserine 65.9 13 16690718 (3), 11273593 (2), 17003227 (2), 15974893 (1) (see all 8)
    thioflavine s 65.8 5 8780408 (1), 10446806 (1), 1373017 (1), 7964904 (1)
    ladostigil 62.5 13 17197368 (4), 12206996 (2), 12853332 (2), 16935943 (2)
    sulindac sulfide 62.1 4 12777371 (1), 18359496 (1), 15076232 (1)
    About this table



    (GenBank/EMBL/DDBJ Accessions according to
    Unigene (Build 228 Homo sapiens; Dec 8 2010) or GenBank,
    RefSeq according to Entrez Gene,
    DOTS (version 10), and/or AceView, transcript ids from Ensembl with links to UCSC,
    non coding RNAs according to RNAdb,
    ESTs according to GeneTide,
    exon structure from GeneLoc, alternative splicing isoforms according to ASD and/or ECgene,
    RNAi Products from Millipore,
    siRNAs from Sigma-Aldrich, OriGene, Qiagen, Super-pooled esiRNAs from Sigma-Aldrich,
    shRNA from Sigma-Aldrich, OriGene, microRNA from Sigma-Aldrich, Qiagen, SABiosciences,
    Tagged/untagged cDNA clones from OriGene, Sigma-Aldrich, GenScript, Primers from OriGene and/or SABiosciences)
    About This Section

    Inhib.
    RNA:
         
    Browse for Gene Knock-down Tools from Millipore
    Browse Nano Scale siRNA at Sigma-Aldrich
    Sigma-Aldrich siRNA Panels and esiRNA and siRNA for APP
    Sigma-Aldrich shRNA Panels and shRNA for APP
    OriGene 29mer shRNA kits in GFP-retroviral vector (see all 7): APP
    OriGene shRNA RFP (see all 7): APP
    OriGene basic RS shRNA (see all 7): APP
    OriGene siRNA (see all 7): APP
    QIAGEN FlexiTube/FlexiPlate siRNA for gene silencing of APP 
    miRNA: Sigma-Aldrich microRNA Mimics for APP
    Sigma-Aldrich microRNA target validation systems for APP 
    QIAGEN Custom miScript Target Protector blocks miRNA-binding site of APP 
    6 SABiosciences Assays for microRNAs that regulate APP:
    hsa-miR-153 hsa-miR-323-3p hsa-miR-300 hsa-miR-381 hsa-miR-1245 hsa-miR-101
    Clones: Browse FLAG tag genes at Sigma-Aldrich
    OriGene GFP tagged cDNA clones in CMV expression vector (see all 5): APP
    OriGene Myc/DDK tagged cDNA clones in CMV expression vector (see all 7): APP
    OriGene untagged cDNA clones in CMV expression vector (see all 3): APP
    OriGene 3'-UTR Clone (see all 5): APP 
    Browse OriGene MicroRNA Expression Plasmids 
    GenScript Custom cDNA clone Services for APP 
    Primers: OriGene genome-wide validated SYBR primer pairs: APP
    Browse OriGene validated miRNA SYBR primer pairs 
    SABiosciences RT2 qPCR Primer Assay for APP: PPH05947A

    REFSEQ mRNAs for APP gene (5 alternative transcripts): 

    NM_000484.3  NM_001136129.2  NM_001136130.2  NM_201413.2  NM_201414.2  

    Additional cDNA sequence: 

    AB066441.2 AF282245.1 AK294534.1 AK295373.1 AK295621.1 AK296229.1 AK297229.1 AK297412.1 
    AK298861.1 AK311717.1 AK312326.1 BC004369.1 BC065523.1 BC065529.1 BC110059.1 CR618347.1 
    CR618842.1 M15533.1 M16765.1 M18734.1 M28373.1 M35675.1 S41243.1 S60721.1 
    S61380.1 S61383.1 X06981.1 X06982.1 X06989.1 Y00264.1 

    24/44 DOTS entries (see all 44):

    DT.95298153  DT.100894758  DT.92047441  DT.97861505  DT.456045  DT.95135651  DT.100680290  DT.100043645 
    DT.100680285  DT.100680298  DT.100680291  DT.95246943  DT.100680273  DT.98132128  DT.100894757  DT.85105138 
    DT.99974598  DT.91775407  DT.91775451  DT.97867296  DT.100866396  DT.100894759  DT.121133292  DT.121133321 

    24/1024 AceView cDNA sequences (see all 1024):

    BQ684549 BQ681061 BQ477328 BM693510 CD243886 BU742645 BM837893 AA663389 
    AA923680 CA848536 CD105256 CD512841 BC004369 AI129306 BM989967 AW020412 
    AI219108 BM846181 NM_201414 BQ771750 BU633285 BF988924 BF149115 CD106229 

    highest scoring ESTs for APP:

    AL518480 AL532648 AL537562 AL543516 AL550425 AL550975 AL557346 AU128077 AU137092 BC004369 

    Unigene Cluster for APP:

    Amyloid beta (A4) precursor protein
    Hs.434980  [show with all ESTs]
    Unigene Representative Sequence: NM_000484


    GeneLoc Exon Structure

    18/19 Ensembl transcripts including schematic representations, and UCSC links where relevant (see all 19):
    ENST00000474136(uc011acj.1) ENST00000491395 ENST00000448388(uc011aci.1)
    ENST00000456209 ENST00000354192 ENST00000358918(uc002ylz.2) ENST00000415997
    ENST00000439274(uc011ach.1) ENST00000359726(uc002ymb.2 uc010glj.2)
    ENST00000463070 ENST00000357903(uc002yma.2) ENST00000348990 ENST00000448850
    ENST00000464867 ENST00000346798(uc011acg.1) ENST00000466453 ENST00000440126(uc010glk.2)
    ENST00000452232

    (Experimental results according to 1GeneNote and GNF BioGPS,
    probe sets-to-genes annotations according to 2GeneAnnot , 3GeneTide , Sets of similar genes according to GeneDecks, Electronic Northern calculations according to data from UniGene (Build 228 Homo sapiens), SAGE tags according to CGAP, plus additional links to SOURCE, and/or GNF BioGPS, and/or EXPOLDB, and/or UniProtKB,
    Primers from OriGene and/or SABiosciences )
    About This Section

    APP expression in normal and diseased human tissues

    1  / 2  / 3

    9 probe-sets matching APP gene

    Affymetrix
    probe-set
    Array  GeneAnnot data GeneNote data GeneTide data
    # genes Sensitivity Specificity Correlation Length Gb_Accession Consensus Uniqueness Score Rank
    41136_s_at2, 3 U95-A 1 1.00 1.00 0.94 1.17 X13466 0.20 1.00 0.72 1
    64309_f_at2, 3 U95-C 1 0.75 1.00 0.76 1.52 AI625555 0.60 1.00 0.82 1
    70660_at2, 3 U95-D 1 0.31 1.00 0.40 0.32 AI827546 0.40 1.00 0.76 1
    200602_at2, 3 U133-A 1 1.00 1.00 -- -- NM_000484 0.60 1.00 0.82 1
    214953_s_at2, 3 U133-A 1 1.00 1.00 -- -- X06989 0.80 0.88 0.84 1
    211277_x_at2, 3 U133-A 1 0.64 1.00 -- -- BC004369 0.80 1.00 0.91 1
    200602_at2 U133Plus2 1 1.00 1.00 -- -- -- -- -- -- --
    214953_s_at2 U133Plus2 1 1.00 1.00 -- -- -- -- -- -- --
    211277_x_at2 U133Plus2 1 0.64 1.00 -- -- -- -- -- -- --
    About this table

    APP for expression           About GeneDecksing

    Data from Genenote  (Publications) and GNF BioGPS
        About these images
    APP gene expression
    APP gene electronic northern expression
    APP gene sage expression
    About these images

    CGAP SAGE TAG: ATCGCTTTCT

    SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster: Hs.434980

    Expression variation in blood from EXPOLDB for APP

    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: A4_HUMAN, P05067
    Tissue specificity: Expressed in all fetal tissues examined with highest levels in brain, kidney, heart and spleen.
    Weak expression in liver. In adult brain, highest expression found in the frontal lobe of the cortex and in the
    anterior perisylvian cortex-opercular gyri. Moderate expression in the cerebellar cortex, the posterior perisylvian
    cortex-opercular gyri and the temporal associated cortex. Weak expression found in the striate, extra-striate and
    motor cortices. Expressed in cerebrospinal fluid, and plasma. Isoform APP695 is the predominant form in neuronal
    tissue, isoform APP751 and isoform APP770 are widely expressed in non-neuronal cells. Isoform APP751 is the most
    abundant form in T-lymphocytes. Appican is expressed in astrocytes

    Primers: OriGene genome-wide validated SYBR primer pairs: APP
    Browse OriGene validated miRNA SYBR primer pairs 
    SABiosciences RT2 qPCR Primer Assay for APP: PPH05947A
        SABiosciences Expression via Pathway-Focused PCR Arrays including APP: PAHS-057A PAHS-084A 


    (Orthologs according to 1,2HomoloGene (2older version, for species not in 1newer version), 3euGenes, 4SGD and/or 5MGI Dec 24 2010, with possible further links to Flybase and/or WormBase, Gene Trees according to Ensembl)
    About This Section

    Orthologs for APP gene from 5/10 species (see all 10)
    Organism Gene Locus Description Human
    Similarity
    NCBI accessions
    dog
    (Canis familiaris)
    APP1   -- amyloid beta (A4) precursor protein 87.58(n)
    91.8(a)
    403407  NM_001006601.1  NP_001006601.1 
    chimpanzee
    (Pan troglodytes)
    APP1   -- amyloid beta (A4) precursor protein 95.44(n)
    94.53(a)
    473931  NM_001013018.1  NP_001013036.1 
    cow
    (Bos taurus)
    APP1   -- amyloid beta (A4) precursor protein 91.27(n)
    97.7(a)
    280722  NM_001076796.1  NP_001070264.1 
    rat
    (Rattus norvegicus)
    App1   -- amyloid beta (A4) precursor protein 85.9(n)
    92.23(a)
    54226  NM_019288.1  NP_062161.1 
    mouse
    (Mus musculus)
    App1 , 5 16 (46.92 cM)5
    amyloid beta (A4) precursor protein1, 5 89.26(n)1
    97.41(a)1
    118201  NM_007471.21  NP_031497.21 
     AK0305835  AK0524485  (see all 57)
    About this table        Species with no ortholog for APP

    ENSEMBL Gene Tree for APP (if available)

    (Paralogs according to 1HomoloGene
    and 2Ensembl, Pseudogenes according to 3Pseudogene.org)
    About This Section
    Paralogs for APP gene
    APLP22  APLP12  

    APP for paralogs           About GeneDecksing



    (SNPs according to the 1NCBI SNP Database, 2Ensembl, 3PupaSUITE, and UniProtKB, Linkage Disequilibrium by HapMap, Structural Variations(CNVs/InDels/Inversions) from the Database of Genomic Variants, Resequencing Primers from Qiagen)
    About This Section

    10/3666 NCBI SNPs in APP are shown (see all 3666)
    Genomic DataTranscription Related DataAllele Frequencies
    SNP IDValidChr 21 posSequenceRecsAA
    Chg
    TypeMoreRecsAllele
    freq
    PopTotal
    sample
    More
    ----------
    rs11451,2
    C,27260014(-) TTTGCG/ATATCT 5 -- int11Minor allele frequency- A:0.00--10
    rs11461,2
    --27260001(-) taaacA/Ctagaa 5 -- int10--------
    rs39911,2
    C,F,O,27428256(-) TAAGGG/TCAGAT 5 -- int116Minor allele frequency- T:0.16NA MN NS EA 1197
    rs41751,2
    C,F,A,H,27338298(-) GGAGCG/ACTGCT 5 -- int112Minor allele frequency- A:0.49NS NA EA WA 280
    rs571261,2
    C,F,O,A,H,27311825(+) CAAGTG/ATCAAA 5 -- int118Minor allele frequency- A:0.11NA EA NS WA 906
    rs1286461,2
    C27343412(-) ctgcaC/Ttccag 5 -- int10--------
    rs1286471,2
    C,F,27343167(-) AAAGCC/TATGAG 5 -- int17Minor allele frequency- T:0.10NS EA NA 594
    rs1286481,2
    C,F,A,27342992(-) AGAACA/GAGCTT 5 -- int117Minor allele frequency- G:0.40NA PA NS EA WA 1374
    rs1699631,2
    C27289402(-) agagaT/Cggggt 5 -- int15Minor allele frequency- C:0.50MN NA WA 192
    rs1700641,2
    C27306836(-) ggaggC/Aagagg 5 -- int1 trp36Minor allele frequency- A:0.00NA WA 12
    About this table

    HapMap Linkage Disequilibrium images for APP (up to first 250kb)
    Structural Variations (Copy Number Variations, Insertions/Deletions, Inversions)
    Database of Genomic Variants (DGV): 4 variations for APP
         1 Indel: 41614
         3 Inversions: 103352 43712 59775

    QIAGEN SeqTarget long-range PCR primers for resequencing APP 

    (in which this Gene is Involved, According to OMIM, UniProtKB, Novoseek, PharmGKB, Genatlas, GeneTests, Blood group antigen gene mutations by BGMUT, LSDB, HGMD, GAD, HuGE Navigator, and/or TGDB.)
    About This Section

    APP for disorders           About GeneDecksing

    OMIM: 104760

    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: A4_HUMAN, P05067

  • Defects in APP are the cause of Alzheimer disease type 1 (AD1) [MIM:104300]. AD1 is a familial early-onset
  • form of Alzheimer disease. It can be associated with cerebral amyloid angiopathy. Alzheimer disease is a
    neurodegenerative disorder characterized by progressive dementia, loss of cognitive abilities, and deposition of
    fibrillar amyloid proteins as intraneuronal neurofibrillary tangles, extracellular amyloid plaques and vascular
    amyloid deposits. The major constituent of these plaques is the neurotoxic amyloid-beta-APP 40-42 peptide (s), derived
    proteolytically from the transmembrane precursor protein APP by sequential secretase processing. The cytotoxic
    C-terminal fragments (CTFs) and the caspase-cleaved products such as C31 derived from APP, are also implicated in
    neuronal death
  • Defects in APP are the cause of amyloidosis cerebroarterial Dutch type (AMYLCAD) [MIM:605714]; also known as
  • hereditary cerebral hemorrhage with amyloidosis Dutch type (HCHWAD). AMYLCAD is a hereditary localized amyloidosis due
    to amyloid-beta A4 peptide(s) deposition in the cerebral vessels. Beta-APP40 is the predominant form of
    cerebrovascular amyloid. Amyloid is not found outside the nervous system. The principal clinical characteristics are
    recurrent cerebral and cerebellar hemorrhages, recurrent strokes, cerebral ischemia, cerebral infarction, and
    progressive mental deterioration. Onset of the disease is in middle age (44 to 60 years). Patients develop cerebral
    hemorrhage because of the severe cerebral amyloid angiopathy. Parenchymal amyloid deposits are rare and largely in the
    form of pre-amyloid lesions or diffuse plaque-like structures. They are Congo red negative and lack the dense amyloid
    cores commonly present in Alzheimer disease
  • Defects in APP are the cause of amyloidosis cerebroarterial Italian type (AMYLCAIT) [MIM:605714]. AMYLCAIT is
  • a hereditary localized amyloidosis due to amyloid-beta A4 peptide(s) deposition in the cerebral vessels, resulting in
    cerebral amyloid angiopathy. Amyloid is not found outside the nervous system. It is a condition very similar to
    AMYLCAD, but the clinical course is less severe. Patients manifest mild cognitive decline, recurrent strokes, and
    epilepsy in some cases. There are extensive amyloid deposits in leptomeningeal and cortical vessels and, to a lesser
    extent, in the neuropil of the cerebral cortex, in the absence of neurofibrillary tangles
  • Defects in APP are the cause of amyloidosis cerebroarterial Iowa type (AMYLCAIW) [MIM:605714]. AMYLCAIW is a
  • hereditary amyloidosis due to amyloid-beta A4 peptide(s) deposition. Patients have progressive aphasic dementia,
    leukoencephalopathy, and occipital calcifications

    10/97 Novoseek disease relationships for APP gene (see all 97)

    Disease   -log (P-Val)   Hits   PubMed IDs for Articles with Shared Sentences (# sentences)
    alzheimers disease 97.8 4064 9037522 (6), 15992373 (5), 11033334 (4), 12727689 (4) (see all 99)
    senile plaques 96.9 978 1704190 (4), 7671455 (4), 1562053 (3), 1703383 (3) (see all 99)
    neurofibrillary tangles 90.4 152 7684484 (3), 16413130 (2), 15575491 (2), 7824200 (1) (see all 99)
    cerebral amyloid angiopathy 89.2 86 1303239 (2), 11760381 (2), 9295214 (2), 11021833 (2) (see all 71)
    amyloid deposition 87.7 76 8761343 (2), 7639729 (2), 1632967 (1), 10681074 (1) (see all 65)
    neurodegeneration 85 185 15645264 (2), 14529455 (2), 9865935 (2), 8590049 (2) (see all 99)
    neurodegenerative diseases 82.9 95 8294927 (1), 8021287 (1), 15672443 (1), 16027166 (1) (see all 79)
    dementia 80.8 183 20403962 (4), 1723832 (3), 15184603 (3), 9717183 (2) (see all 99)
    amyloidosis 80.1 124 8267600 (2), 9133629 (2), 9014180 (2), 2113597 (1) (see all 99)
    early onset alzheimer disease 79.5 26 1791986 (2), 16921174 (2), 8469399 (1), 7592902 (1) (see all 18)
    About this table

    GeneTests: APP
    Early-Onset Familial Alzheimer Disease

    Locus Specific Mutation Databases (LSDB): APP
    Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD): APP
    Genetic Association Database (GAD): APP
    Human Genome Epidemiology (HuGE) Navigator: APP (81 documents)

    Export disorders and mutations for APP gene to outside databases

    (Possibly Related Articles in Doctor's Guide)
    About This Section

    (in PubMed. Associations of this gene to articles via 1Entrez Gene, 2UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, 3HGNC, 4GAD, 5PharmGKB, 6UniProtKB/TrEMBL, and/or 7Novoseek)
    About This Section

    10/3303 PubMed articles for APP gene, integrated from 7 sources (see all 3303):
    (articles sorted by number of sources associating them with APP)
    1. Regulation of amyloid protein precursor (APP) binding to collagen and mapping of the binding sites on APP and collagen type I. (PubMed id 8576160)1, 2, 7 Beher D.... Multhaup G. (1996)
    2. Mutagenesis identifies new signals for beta-amyloid precursor protein endocytosis, turnover, and the generation of secreted fragments, including Abeta42. (PubMed id 10383380)1, 2, 7 Perez R.G.... Koo E.H. (1999)
    3. Regulation of FE65 nuclear translocation and function by amyloid beta-protein precursor in osmotically stressed cells. (PubMed id 18468999)1, 2, 7 Nakaya T.... Suzuki T. (2008)
    4. Phosphorylation-dependent regulation of the interaction of amyloid precursor protein with Fe65 affects the production of beta-amyloid. (PubMed id 11517218)1, 2, 7 Ando K.... Suzuki T. (2001)
    5. A novel mutation in the PSEN2 gene (T430M) associated with variable expression in a family with early-onset Alzheimer disease. (PubMed id 12925374)1, 4, 7 Ezquerra M....Oliva R. (2003)
    6. A second cytotoxic proteolytic peptide derived from amyloid beta- protein precursor. (PubMed id 10742146)1, 2, 7 Lu D.C.... Bredesen D.E. (2000)
    7. Linkage and mutational analysis of familial Alzheimer disease kindreds for the APP gene region. (PubMed id 1415269)1, 2, 7 Kamino K.... Schellenberg G.D. (1992)
    8. Early-onset Alzheimer's disease caused by mutations at codon 717 of the beta-amyloid precursor protein gene. (PubMed id 1944558)1, 2, 7 Chartier-Harlin M.-C.... Mullan M. (1991)
    9. Prevalence of pathogenic mutations in an Italian clinical series of patients with familial dementia. (PubMed id 15975068)1, 4, 7 Signorini S....Binetti G. (2004)
    10. Mutations in presenilin 1, presenilin 2 and amyloid precursor protein genes in patients with early-onset Alzheimer's disease in Poland. (PubMed id 14769392)1, 4, 7 Zekanowski C....Barcikowska M. (2003)

    (in PubMed, OMIM, and NCBI Bookshelf)
    About This Section
     ANDOR
    Aliases
    Disorders
    Free Text  

      Query String
    PubMed
    OMIM
    NCBI Bookshelf
      (Note: In FireFox, select the above section and copy using Ctrl-C)

    (According to Entrez Gene, HGNC, AceView, euGenes, Ensembl, miRBase, ECgene, Kegg, and/or H-InvDB)
    About This Section
    Entrez Gene: 351 HGNC: 620 AceView: APP Ensembl:ENSG00000142192 euGenes: HUgn351
    ECgene: APP Kegg: 351 H-InvDB: APP

    (According to HUGE)
    About This Section
      --

    (According to ATLAS, HORDE, IMGT, MTDB, LEIDEN, UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, and/or UniProtKB/TrEMBL,
    Wikipedia and/or GeneReviews via UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)
    About This Section
    NameDescription
    Alzheimer Research Forumhttp://www.alzforum.org/res/com/mut/app/default.asp
    AD mutationshttp://www.molgen.ua.ac.be/ADmutations/
    GeneReviewshttp://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/sites/GeneTests/lab/gene/APP
    NIEHS-SNPshttp://egp.gs.washington.edu/data/app/
    Wikipedia http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Amyloid_beta

    (Patent information from GeneIP,
    Licensable technologies from WIS Yeda, Salk, Tufts,
    IP news from XenneX, Inc.)
    About This Section
    Patent Information for APP gene:
    Search GeneIP for patents involving APP

    GeneCards and IP:
    Japan Patent Office Licenses GeneCards     European Patent Office Licenses GeneCards     Improving the IP Search



    (Antibodies, recombinant proteins, and assays by Millipore, Sigma-Aldrich, R&D Systems, Qiagen, GenScript, Cell Signaling Technology, SABiosciences, Novus Biologicals, Epitomics, ProSpec, Uscn,
    Clones available from Millipore, Sigma-Aldrich, OriGene, GenScript, Sino Biological, PCR Arrays from SABiosciences, Drugs and/or compounds by Sigma-Aldrich, Tocris Bioscience, and/or Enzo Life Sciences)
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