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GLRX5 Gene

protein-coding   GIFtS: 53

GC14P076186
glutaredoxin 5
(Previous names: chromosome 14 open reading frame 87, glutaredoxin 5 homolog (S. cerevisiae) )
Symbol approved by the HUGO Gene Nomenclature Committee (HGNC) database
(Previous symbol: C14orf87)
Products    

(According to 1HGNC, 2Entrez Gene,
3UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, 4UniProtKB/TrEMBL, 5OMIM, 6GeneLoc , and/or 7Ensembl, 8miRBase)
About This Section

Aliases & Descriptions
glutaredoxin 51 2     FLB47392 5
C14orf872 3 5     glutaredoxin 5 homolog (S. cerevisiae)1
PR012381 2     chromosome 14 open reading frame 871
GRX51 2     glutaredoxin-related protein 5, mitochondrial2
Monothiol glutaredoxin-52 3     glutaredoxin 5 homolog2
PRO12382 5     MGC141292

External Ids:    HGNC: 201341   Entrez Gene: 512182   Ensembl: ENSG000001825127   UniProtKB: Q86SX63   

Export aliases for GLRX5 gene to outside databases

Previous GC identifers: GC14P095072 GC14P096001


(According to Entrez Gene, Tocris Bioscience, Wikipedia's Gene Wiki,
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, and/or UniProtKB/TrEMBL)
About This Section

Entrez Gene summary for GLRX5:
This gene encodes a mitochondrial protein, which is evolutionarily conserved. It is involved in the biogenesis of
iron-sulfur clusters, which are required for normal iron homeostasis. Mutations in this gene are associated with
autosomal recessive pyridoxine-refractory sideroblastic anemia. (provided by RefSeq)

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: GLRX5_HUMAN, Q86SX6
Function: Monothiol glutaredoxin involved in the biogenesis of iron-sulfur clusters. Required for normal iron
homeostasis. Required for normal regulation of hemoglobin synthesis by the iron-sulfur protein ACO1


(According to GeneLoc and/or HGNC, and/or
Entrez Gene (NCBI build 37),
and/or miRBase,
Genomic Views according to UCSC (hg19) and Ensembl (release 60), Regulatory elements and Epigenetics data according to Qiagen and/or SABiosciences)
About This Section

Regulatory elements:
   SABiosciences Regulatory transcription factor binding sites in the GLRX5 gene promoter:
         PPAR-gamma1   PPAR-gamma2   NF-AT3   NF-AT4   NF-AT2   NF-AT1   RFX1   c-Rel   c-Jun   JunB   
         Other transcription factors

   Search SABiosciences Chromatin IP Primers for GLRX5

Epigenetics:
QIAGEN PyroMark CpG Assay predesigned Pyrosequencing DNA Methylation assays for GLRX5 


Genomic Location:
Genomic View: UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Entrez Gene cytogenetic band: 14q32.13   Ensembl cytogenetic band:  14q32.13   HGNC cytogenetic band: 14q32.2

GLRX5 Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
GLRX5 gene location

GeneLoc gene densities for chromosome 14         GeneLoc Exon Structure

GeneLoc location for GC14P076186:  view genomic region     (about GC identifiers)

Start:
76,186,979 bp from pter
End:
76,196,711 bp from pter
Size:
9,733 bases
Orientation:
plus strand

1 alternative location:
Chr14+ 96,001,323-96,011,055     
RefSeq DNA sequence:
NC_000014.8  NT_026437.12  

(According to 1UniProtKB, neXtProt, and/or Ensembl, Phosphorylation sites according to 2Phosphosite, RefSeq according to NCBI, PDB rendering according to OCA and/or Proteopedia, Recombinant Proteins from Millipore, Sigma-Aldrich, R&D Systems, GenScript, Enzo Life Sciences, OriGene, Novus Biologicals, Sino Biological, and/or ProSpec,
Biochemical Assays by Millipore, Sigma-Aldrich, R&D Systems, OriGene, GenScript, Cell Signaling Technology, Enzo Life Sciences, and/or Uscn, Ontologies according to Gene Ontology Consortium 01 Dec 2010 and Entrez Gene, Antibodies by Millipore, Sigma-Aldrich, R&D Systems, GenScript, Cell Signaling Technology, OriGene, Novus Biologicals, and/or Epitomics)
About This Section

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: GLRX5_HUMAN, Q86SX6 (See protein sequence)
Recommended Name: Glutaredoxin-related protein 5, mitochondrial precursor  
Size: 157 amino acids; 16628 Da
Subunit: Homodimer (Probable)
Subcellular location: Mitochondrion (By similarity)
Sequence caution: Sequence=CAD62364.1; Type=Erroneous initiation;
PDB structures from and Proteopedia :
2WUL (3D)    
Secondary accessions: Q0X088 Q3YML0 Q86WY3 Q8IZ54

Explore the universe of human proteins at neXtProt for GLRX5: NX_Q86SX6 

Post-translational modifications:

  • View phosphorylation sites using PhosphoSite2


  • REFSEQ proteins: NP_057501.2  

    ENSEMBL proteins: 
    ENSP00000328570 


    Human Recombinant Proteins 
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    ProSpec Recombinant Protein for GLRX5

    1 Gene Ontology (GO) cellular component term (GO ID links to tree view):

    GO IDQualified GO termEvidencePubMed IDs
    GO:0005739 mitochondrion ISS--
    About this table

    GLRX5 for ontologies           About GeneDecksing



    Antibodies for GLRX5: 
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    Uscn ELISAs and CLIAs for GLRX5 


    (According to InterPro, ProtoNet, UniProtKB, and/or BLOCKS, Sets of similar genes according to GeneDecks)
    About This Section

    GLRX5 for domains           About GeneDecksing

    4 InterPro domains/families:
     IPR002109 Glutaredoxin
     IPR012336 Thioredoxin-like_fold
     IPR012335 Thioredoxin_fold
     IPR004480 Monothiol_GRX-rel

    Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry Q86SX6

    ProtoNet protein and cluster: Q86SX6

    1 Blocks protein family: IPB002109 Glutaredoxin

    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: GLRX5_HUMAN, Q86SX6
    Similarity: Belongs to the glutaredoxin family. Monothiol subfamily
    Similarity: Contains 1 glutaredoxin domain


    (According to UniProtKB, IUBMB,and/or Genatlas, Animal models from MGI Dec 24 2010,
    shRNA from OriGene, Sigma-Aldrich, RNAi from Millipore, siRNAs from Sigma-Aldrich, OriGene, Qiagen, Super-pooled esiRNAs from Sigma-Aldrich, microRNA from Sigma-Aldrich, Qiagen, SABiosciences, Clones from Millipore, Sigma-Aldrich, OriGene, GenScript, Sino Biological, Cell Lines from GenScript, Ontologies according to Gene Ontology Consortium 01 Dec 2010 via Entrez Gene.)
    About This Section

    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: GLRX5_HUMAN, Q86SX6
    Function: Monothiol glutaredoxin involved in the biogenesis of iron-sulfur clusters. Required for normal iron
    homeostasis. Required for normal regulation of hemoglobin synthesis by the iron-sulfur protein ACO1

    Inhib.
    RNA:
        
    Browse for Gene Knock-down Tools from Millipore
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    Search SABiosciences for Assays for microRNAs that regulate GLRX5

    Gene
    Editing:
    Browse CompoZr Knockout ZFN at Sigma-Aldrich 

    Clones:Browse Clones for the Expression of Recombinant Proteins Available from Millipore
    Browse iPSC Reprogramming Factors at Sigma-Aldrich
    OriGene GFP tagged cDNA clones in CMV expression vector: GLRX5
    OriGene Myc/DDK tagged cDNA clones in CMV expression vector: GLRX5
    OriGene untagged cDNA clones in CMV expression vector: GLRX5
    OriGene 3'-UTR clone: GLRX5 
    Browse MicroRNA Expression Plasmids 
    GenScript cDNA clone with any tag delivered in your preferred vector: GLRX5 
    Browse Sino Biological Human cDNA Clones

    Cell
    Lines:
      
    GenScript Custom overexpressing Cell Line Services for GLRX5 

    4 Gene Ontology (GO) molecular function terms (GO ID links to tree view):

    GO IDQualified GO termEvidencePubMed IDs
    GO:0009055 electron carrier activity IEA--
    GO:0015035 protein disulfide oxidoreductase activity IEA--
    GO:0046872 metal ion binding IEA--
    GO:0051537 2 iron, 2 sulfur cluster binding IEA--
    About this table

    GLRX5 for ontologies           About GeneDecksing


    (Pathways according to Millipore, Cell Signaling Technology, Sigma-Aldrich, KEGG and/or UniProtKB, Sets of similar genes according to GeneDecks, PCR Arrays from SABiosciences, Proteins Network according to SABiosciences, Sigma-Aldrich, Interactions according to 1UniProtKB, 2MINT, and/or 3STRING, with links to IntAct and Ensembl, Ontologies according to Gene Ontology Consortium 01 Dec 2010 via Entrez Gene).
    About This Section

        SABiosciences Custom Pathway-Focused PCR Arrays for GLRX5 

        Search SABiosciences Gene Network CentralTM Interacting Genes and Proteins Networks for GLRX5

    2 Gene Ontology (GO) biological process terms (GO ID links to tree view):

    GO IDQualified GO termEvidencePubMed IDs
    GO:0030097 hemopoiesis ISS--
    GO:0045454 cell redox homeostasis IEA--
    About this table

    GLRX5 for ontologies           About GeneDecksing



    (Chemical Compounds according to UniProtKB, Enzo Life Sciences, Sigma-Aldrich, Tocris Bioscience, and/or Novoseek and Drugs according to Enzo Life Sciences and/or PharmGKB)
    About This Section
    Browse Small Molecules at Sigma-Aldrich
    Browse drugs & compounds from Enzo Life Sciences

    Browse Tocris compounds for GLRX5


    (GenBank/EMBL/DDBJ Accessions according to
    Unigene (Build 228 Homo sapiens; Dec 8 2010) or GenBank,
    RefSeq according to Entrez Gene,
    DOTS (version 10), and/or AceView, transcript ids from Ensembl with links to UCSC,
    non coding RNAs according to RNAdb,
    ESTs according to GeneTide,
    exon structure from GeneLoc, alternative splicing isoforms according to ASD and/or ECgene,
    RNAi Products from Millipore,
    siRNAs from Sigma-Aldrich, OriGene, Qiagen, Super-pooled esiRNAs from Sigma-Aldrich,
    shRNA from Sigma-Aldrich, OriGene, microRNA from Sigma-Aldrich, Qiagen, SABiosciences,
    Tagged/untagged cDNA clones from OriGene, Sigma-Aldrich, GenScript, Primers from OriGene and/or SABiosciences)
    About This Section

    Inhib.
    RNA:
         
    Browse for Gene Knock-down Tools from Millipore
    Browse Nano Scale siRNA at Sigma-Aldrich
    Sigma-Aldrich esiRNA and siRNA for GLRX5
    Sigma-Aldrich shRNA for GLRX5
    OriGene 29mer shRNA kits in GFP-retroviral vector: GLRX5
    OriGene shRNA RFP: GLRX5
    OriGene basic RS shRNA: GLRX5
    OriGene siRNA: GLRX5
    QIAGEN FlexiTube/FlexiPlate siRNA for gene silencing of GLRX5 
    miRNA: Sigma-Aldrich microRNA Mimics for GLRX5
    Browse microRNA target validation systems at Sigma-Aldrich 
    QIAGEN Custom miScript Target Protector blocks miRNA-binding site of GLRX5 
    Search SABiosciences for Assays for microRNAs that regulate GLRX5
    Clones: Browse FLAG tag genes at Sigma-Aldrich
    OriGene GFP tagged cDNA clones in CMV expression vector: GLRX5
    OriGene Myc/DDK tagged cDNA clones in CMV expression vector: GLRX5
    OriGene untagged cDNA clones in CMV expression vector: GLRX5
    OriGene 3'-UTR Clone: GLRX5 
    Browse OriGene MicroRNA Expression Plasmids 
    GenScript cDNA clone with any tag delivered in your preferred vector: GLRX5 
    Primers: OriGene genome-wide validated SYBR primer pairs: GLRX5
    Browse OriGene validated miRNA SYBR primer pairs 
    SABiosciences RT2 qPCR Primer Assay for GLRX5: PPH23754A

    REFSEQ mRNAs for GLRX5 gene: 

    NM_016417.2  

    Additional cDNA sequence: 

    AB223038.1 AF113691.1 BC023528.2 BC047680.1 BC071690.1 BC105275.1 BX248075.1 CR936698.1 
    DQ083331.1 

    7 DOTS entries:

    DT.115000  DT.428883  DT.95170065  DT.91727762  DT.95170067  DT.99929797  DT.86849096 

    24/155 AceView cDNA sequences (see all 155):

    AI051722 H90725 AA335842 AA694246 BI259789 BX116512 T92599 NM_016417 
    CR598908 CR622540 W80609 BX248075 BM925367 BG679356 AA644458 BM720080 
    AI076460 BU607738 BI834047 AW069332 AI276516 BP432046 AI735116 AA991188 

    highest scoring ESTs for GLRX5:

    AI973147 N36909 AA133341 AA133382 AA203566 AA314626 AA482495 AA482645 AA644458 AA677563 

    Unigene Cluster for GLRX5:

    Glutaredoxin 5
    Hs.728210  [show with all ESTs]
    Unigene Representative Sequence: CR936698


    GeneLoc Exon Structure

    1 Ensembl transcript including schematic representation, and UCSC links where relevant:
    ENST00000331334(uc001yem.1)

    (Experimental results according to 1GeneNote and GNF BioGPS,
    probe sets-to-genes annotations according to 2GeneAnnot , 3GeneTide , Sets of similar genes according to GeneDecks, Electronic Northern calculations according to data from UniGene (Build 228 Homo sapiens), SAGE tags according to CGAP, plus additional links to SOURCE, and/or GNF BioGPS, and/or EXPOLDB, and/or UniProtKB,
    Primers from OriGene and/or SABiosciences )
    About This Section

    GLRX5 expression in normal and diseased human tissues

    1  / 2  / 3

    4 probe-sets matching GLRX5 gene

    Affymetrix
    probe-set
    Array  GeneAnnot data GeneNote data GeneTide data
    # genes Sensitivity Specificity Correlation Length Gb_Accession Consensus Uniqueness Score Rank
    65171_at2, 3 U95-C 1 0.75 1.00 1.00 1.00 N36909 1.00 1.00 1.00 1
    59721_at2, 3 U95-C 1 0.62 1.00 0.99 1.00 AI973147 1.00 1.00 1.00 1
    221932_s_at2, 3 U133-A 1 0.82 1.00 -- -- AA133341 0.80 1.00 0.91 1
    221932_s_at2 U133Plus2 1 0.82 1.00 -- -- -- -- -- -- --
    About this table

    GLRX5 for expression           About GeneDecksing

    Data from Genenote  (Publications) and GNF BioGPS
        About these images
    GLRX5 gene expression
    GLRX5 gene electronic northern expression
    GLRX5 gene sage expression
    About these images

    CGAP SAGE TAG: CCTGAGTTGA

    SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster: Hs.728210
    Primers: OriGene genome-wide validated SYBR primer pairs: GLRX5
    Browse OriGene validated miRNA SYBR primer pairs 
    SABiosciences RT2 qPCR Primer Assay for GLRX5: PPH23754A
        SABiosciences Custom PCR Arrays for GLRX5 


    (Orthologs according to 1,2HomoloGene (2older version, for species not in 1newer version), 3euGenes, 4SGD and/or 5MGI Dec 24 2010, with possible further links to Flybase and/or WormBase, Gene Trees according to Ensembl)
    About This Section

    Orthologs for GLRX5 gene from 5/17 species (see all 17)
    Organism Gene Locus Description Human
    Similarity
    NCBI accessions
    chimpanzee
    (Pan troglodytes)
    GLRX51   -- glutaredoxin 5 99.79(n)
    100(a)
    741187  XM_001154482.1  XP_001154482.1 
    cow
    (Bos taurus)
    GLRX51   -- glutaredoxin 5 92.21(n)
    94.81(a)
    505935  XM_582303.3  XP_582303.1 
    rat
    (Rattus norvegicus)
    Glrx51   -- glutaredoxin 5 89.91(n)
    92.76(a)
    362776  XM_343103.3  XP_343104.3 
    mouse
    (Mus musculus)
    Glrx51 , 5 12 (55.04 cM)5
    glutaredoxin 5 homolog (S. cerevisiae)1, 5 89.69(n)1
    94.08(a)1
    730461  NM_028419.21  NP_082695.11 
     AK0137615  AK1488475  (see all 10)
    chicken
    (Gallus gallus)
    GLRX51   -- glutaredoxin 5 71.71(n)
    73.68(a)
    423440  NM_001008472.1  NP_001008472.1 
    About this table        Species with no ortholog for GLRX5

    ENSEMBL Gene Tree for GLRX5 (if available)

    (Paralogs according to 1HomoloGene
    and 2Ensembl, Pseudogenes according to 3Pseudogene.org)
    About This Section
      --

    (SNPs according to the 1NCBI SNP Database, 2Ensembl, 3PupaSUITE, and UniProtKB, Linkage Disequilibrium by HapMap, Structural Variations(CNVs/InDels/Inversions) from the Database of Genomic Variants, Resequencing Primers from Qiagen)
    About This Section

    10/153 NCBI SNPs in GLRX5 are shown (see all 153)
    Genomic DataTranscription Related DataAllele Frequencies
    SNP IDValidChr 14 posSequenceRecsAA
    Chg
    TypeMoreRecsAllele
    freq
    PopTotal
    sample
    More
    ----------
    rs9601,2
    C,F,H,96010866(-) TTTGTC/G/TCACCA 1 -- ut3114EA MN NA WA 1960
    rs71201,2
    C,F,96010589(+) GGTTCG/ATGAGC 1 -- ut31 ese322Minor allele frequency- A:0.38MN EA NA NS WA 2756
    rs7163151,2
    C,F,O,A,96009307(+) TGTTAC/TAGTCA 1 -- int120Minor allele frequency- T:0.42MN NS EA NA WA 1408
    rs7497421,2
    C,F,A,H,95999998(+) TTCCGG/CATTTA 1 -- ng5110Minor allele frequency- C:0.09MN NS EA NA WA 820
    rs9116811,2
    C,A,96001383(+) TGGCCA/CGCTGT 1 -- ut51 ese33Minor allele frequency- C:0.31MN NA 188
    rs9685911,2
    C,A,96001224(+) GGCCCA/CCCTCC 1 -- ng510--------
    rs9875031,2
    --96002306(+) GTTGGA/GACAGC 1 -- int10--------
    rs10078131,2
    C,F,O,A,96007810(+) TTACAC/TCTATT 1 -- int121Minor allele frequency- T:0.27NS EA NA WA 1278
    rs10078141,2
    C,F,A,H,96008021(+) GACATA/GTGATC 1 -- int111Minor allele frequency- N:0.00NA EA WA 672
    rs10447461,2
    --96010666(+) ACTGCA/CCTGTA 1 -- ut310--------
    About this table

    HapMap Linkage Disequilibrium images for GLRX5 (up to first 250kb)
    Structural Variations (Copy Number Variations, Insertions/Deletions, Inversions)
    Database of Genomic Variants (DGV): 1 variation for GLRX5
         1 CNV: 8775

    QIAGEN SeqTarget long-range PCR primers for resequencing GLRX5 

    (in which this Gene is Involved, According to OMIM, UniProtKB, PharmGKB, Genatlas, GeneTests, Blood group antigen gene mutations by BGMUT, LSDB, HGMD, GAD, HuGE Navigator, and/or TGDB.)
    About This Section

    GLRX5 for disorders           About GeneDecksing

    OMIM: 609588   disorders: 205950  

    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: GLRX5_HUMAN, Q86SX6

  • Defects in GLRX5 are a cause of anemia sideroblastic pyridoxine-refractory autosomal recessive (PRARSA)
  • [MIM:205950]. A form of sideroblastic anemia not responsive to pyridoxine. Sideroblastic anemia is characterized by
    anemia of varying severity, hypochromic peripheral erythrocytes, systemic iron overload secondary to chronic
    ineffective erythropoiesis, and the presence of bone marrow ringed sideroblasts. Sideroblasts are characterized by
    iron-loaded mitochondria clustered around the nucleus

    Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD): GLRX5
    Human Genome Epidemiology (HuGE) Navigator: GLRX5 (2 documents)

    Export disorders and mutations for GLRX5 gene to outside databases


    (Possibly Related Articles in Doctor's Guide)
    About This Section
      --

    (in PubMed. Associations of this gene to articles via 1Entrez Gene, 2UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, 3HGNC, 4GAD, 5PharmGKB, 6UniProtKB/TrEMBL, and/or 7Novoseek)
    About This Section

    10/11 PubMed articles for GLRX5 gene, integrated from 7 sources (see all 11):
    (articles sorted by number of sources associating them with GLRX5)
    1. The human counterpart of zebrafish shiraz shows sideroblastic-like microcytic anemia and iron overload. (PubMed id 17485548)1, 2, 7 Camaschella C.... Iolascon A. (2007)
    2. Deficiency of glutaredoxin 5 reveals Fe-S clusters are required for vertebrate haem synthesis. (PubMed id 16110529)1, 2 Wingert R.A....Zon L.I. (2005)
    3. The status, quality, and expansion of the NIH full-length cDNA project: the Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC). (PubMed id 15489334)1, 2 Gerhard D.S....Malek J. (2004)
    4. Glutaredoxin 5 deficiency causes sideroblastic anemia by specifically impairing heme biosynthesis and depleting cytosolic iron in hu man erythroblasts. (PubMed id 20364084)1, 7 Ye H....Rouault T.A. (2010)
    5. Systematic molecular genetic analysis of congenital s ideroblastic anemia: evidence for genetic heterogeneity and identification of n ovel mutations. (PubMed id 19731322)1, 7 Bergmann A.K....Neufeld E.J. (2010)
    6. Personalized smoking cessation: interactions between nicotine dose, dependence and quit-success genotype score. (PubMed id 20379614)1 Rose J.E....Uhl G.R. (2010)
    7. Genetic variants in nuclear-encoded mitochondrial gen es influence AIDS progression. (PubMed id 20877624)1 Hendrickson S.L....O'Brien S.J. (2010)
    8. Generation and initial analysis of more than 15,000 full-length human and mouse cDNA sequences. (PubMed id 12477932)1 Strausberg R.L....Marra M.A. (2002)
    9. Thioltransferase (glutaredoxin) is detected within HIV-1 and can regulate the activity of glutathionylated HIV-1 protease in vitro. (PubMed id 9325327)1 Davis D.A....Yarchoan R. (1997)
    10. Hereditary sideroblastic anemias: pathophysiology, di agnosis, and treatment. (PubMed id 19786205)7 Camaschella C. (2009)

    (in PubMed, OMIM, and NCBI Bookshelf)
    About This Section
     ANDOR
    Aliases
    Free Text  

      Query String
    PubMed
    OMIM
    NCBI Bookshelf
      (Note: In FireFox, select the above section and copy using Ctrl-C)

    (According to Entrez Gene, HGNC, AceView, euGenes, Ensembl, miRBase, ECgene, Kegg, and/or H-InvDB)
    About This Section
    Entrez Gene: 51218 HGNC: 20134 AceView: C14orf87 Ensembl:ENSG00000182512 euGenes: HUgn51218
    ECgene: GLRX5 H-InvDB: GLRX5

    (According to HUGE)
    About This Section
      --

    (According to ATLAS, HORDE, IMGT, MTDB, LEIDEN, UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, and/or UniProtKB/TrEMBL,
    Wikipedia and/or GeneReviews via UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)
    About This Section
      --

    (Patent information from GeneIP,
    Licensable technologies from WIS Yeda, Salk, Tufts,
    IP news from XenneX, Inc.)
    About This Section
    Patent Information for GLRX5 gene:
    Search GeneIP for patents involving GLRX5

    GeneCards and IP:
    Japan Patent Office Licenses GeneCards     European Patent Office Licenses GeneCards     Improving the IP Search



    (Antibodies, recombinant proteins, and assays by Millipore, Sigma-Aldrich, R&D Systems, Qiagen, GenScript, Cell Signaling Technology, SABiosciences, Novus Biologicals, Epitomics, ProSpec, Uscn,
    Clones available from Millipore, Sigma-Aldrich, OriGene, GenScript, Sino Biological, PCR Arrays from SABiosciences, Drugs and/or compounds by Sigma-Aldrich, Tocris Bioscience, and/or Enzo Life Sciences)
    About This Section

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